Nucleosomes (Total 4436 Papers Found)

The eukaryotic genome is packaged into a periodic nucleoprotein structure termed chromatin. The repeating unit of chromatin, the nucleosome, consists of DNA that is wound nearly two times around an octamer of histone proteins. To facilitate DNA-directed processes in chromatin, it is often necessary to rearrange or to mobilize the nucleosomes. This remodeling of the nucleosomes is achieved by the action of chromatin-remodeling complexes, which are a family of ATP-dependent molecular machines. Chr ...
The chromatin accessibility complex (CHRAC) was originally defined biochemically as an ATP-dependent 'nucleosome remodelling' activity. Central to its activity is the ATPase ISWI, which catalyses the transfer of histone octamers between DNA segments in cis. In addition to ISWI, four other potential subunits were observed consistently in active CHRAC fractions. We have now identified the p175 subunit of CHRAC as Acf1, a protein known to associate with ISWI in the ACF complex. Interaction of Acf1 ...
A crucial step in eukaryotic transcriptional initiation is recognition of the promoter TATA by the TATA-binding protein (TBP), which then allows TFIIA and TFIIB to be recruited. However, nucleosomes block the interaction between TBP and DNA. We show that the yeast FACT complex (yFACT) promotes TBP binding to a TATA box in chromatin both in vivo and in vitro. The SPT16 gene encodes a subunit of yFACT, and we show that certain spt16 mutations are synthetically lethal with TBP mutants. Some of thes ...
SV40 chromatin can be isolated in two forms: At moderate ionic strength (mu = 0.1-0.3) it contains histone H1 in addition to the four nucleosomal histones and has a highly condensed appearance in the electron microscope, being composed of a few closely connected large spheres [190 A (160, 220) diameter]. At high ionic strength (mu = 0.6-0.8) or after prolonged exposure to very low ionic strengths (mu less than 0.02), the compact form unfolds and the chromatin shows a typical nucleosomal morpholo ...
A high level of the post-translational modification, acetylation, is found on the N-terminal regions of the core histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 and is primarily located in the nucleosomes of active genes. An in vitro transcription system was applied, which utilizes T7 RNA polymerase and template DNAs that are either moderately or highly positively coiled, to determine whether acetylation alters the dynamics of histone displacement from these templates during transcription. To measure displacement ...
Histone H5 induces extensive nucleosome alignment in vitro, with a 210 +/- 5 base pair (bp) average unit repeat, on some of the constructs derived from plasmid pBR327. Plasmid pBR327 itself aligns nucleosomes poorly, even though it possesses a chromatin organizing region which nucleates the alignment reaction [Jeong et al. (1991) J. Mol. Biol. 222, 1131-1147]. Examination of various regions of pBR327 chromatin by Southern hybridization revealed no substantial regional differences, suggesting an ...
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a large DNA virus which is characterized by its ability to form latent infections in neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Although histones are found in the capsids of small DNA viruses (papovaviruses), none are found in the capsids of large HSV. However, after entry into the infected cell nucleus, the HSV genome begins to associate with nucleosomes during the earliest stages of infection. In contrast, late during infection, newly replicated viral DNA does not ...
Variation in chromatin composition and organization often reflects differences in genome function. Histone variants, for example, replace canonical histones to contribute to regulation of numerous nuclear processes including transcription, DNA repair, and chromosome segregation. Here we focus on H2A.Bbd, a rapidly evolving variant found in mammals but not in invertebrates. We report that in human cells, nucleosomes bearing H2A.Bbd form unconventional chromatin structures enriched within actively ...
Nucleosome positioning is important for the structural integrity of chromosomes. During metaphase the mitotic spindle exerts physical force on pericentromeric chromatin. The cell must adjust the pericentromeric chromatin to accommodate the changing tension resulting from microtubule dynamics to maintain a stable metaphase spindle. Here we examine the effects of spindle-based tension on nucleosome dynamics by measuring the histone turnover of the chromosome arm and the pericentromere during metap ...
In the budding yeast, cohesin is loaded onto the chromosome during the late G1 phase, establishes sister chromatid cohesion concomitant with DNA replication, and dissociates by the telophase. Here, using oligonucleotide tiling arrays, we show that, at the anaphase, nearly all of the cohesin binding sites contain nucleosome-free regions. The majority of these sites remain nucleosome-free throughout the cell cycle, consistent with the suggestion of a DNA-binding anchoring protein present at these ...
Histone chaperones are critical for guiding specific post-transcriptional modifications of histones, safeguarding the histone deposition (or disassociation) of nucleosome (dis)assembly, and regulating chromatin structures to change gene activities. HAT1-interacting factor 1 (Hif1) has been reported to be an H3-H4 chaperone and to be involved in telomeric silencing and nucleosome (dis)assembly. However, the structural basis for the interaction of Hif1 with histones remains unknown. Here, we repor ...
The nucleosome remodeling factor NURF is a four-subunit, ISWI-containing chromatin remodeling complex that catalyzes nucleosome sliding in an ATP-dependent fashion, thereby modulating the accessibility of the DNA. To elucidate the mechanism of nucleosome sliding, we have investigated by hydroxyl radical footprinting how NURF makes initial contact with a nucleosome positioned at one end of a DNA fragment. NURF binds to two separate locations on the nucleosome: a continuous stretch of linker DNA u ...
Nucleosomes in active chromatin are dynamic, but whether they have distinct structural conformations is unknown. To identify nucleosomes with alternative structures genome-wide, we used H4S47C-anchored cleavage mapping, which revealed that 5% of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) nucleosome positions have asymmetric histone-DNA interactions. These asymmetric interactions are enriched at nucleosome positions that flank promoters. Micrococcal nuclease (MNase) sequence-based profiles of asymm ...
We characterized the effect of histone acetylation on the structure of a nucleosome and the interactions between two nucleosomes. In this study, nucleosomes reconstituted with the Selex "Widom 601" sequence were acetylated with the Piccolo NuA4 complex, which acetylates mainly H4 N-terminal tail lysine residues and some H2A/H3 N-terminal tail lysine residues. Upon the acetylation, we observed directional unwrapping of nucleosomal DNA that accompanies topology change of the DNA. Interactions betw ...
Cooperativity in transcription factor (TF) binding is essential in eukaryotic gene regulation and arises through diverse mechanisms. Here, we focus on one mechanism, collaborative competition, which is of interest because it arises both automatically (with no requirement for TF coevolution) and spontaneously (with no requirement for ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factors). Previous experimental studies of collaborative competition analyzed cases in which target sites for pairs of cooperatin ...
Retrotransposons, the ancestors of retroviruses, have the potential for gene disruption and genomic takeover if not kept in check. Paradoxically, although host cells repress these elements by multiple mechanisms, they are transcribed and are even activated under stress conditions. Here, we describe a new mechanism of retrotransposon regulation through transcription start site (TSS) selection by altered nucleosome occupancy. We show that Fun30 chromatin remodelers cooperate to maintain a high lev ...
HEp-2 cells were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 and labeled with [3H]thymidine and 14C-amino acids. Infected cells or nuclei prepared from them were extracted with Triton X-100 and NaCl, utilizing a method recently described, and the low-speed supernatant (extract) was partially purified by sedimentation on sucrose gradients. A nucleoprotein complex which sedimented as a wide peak around 200S was identified. The nucleoprotein complex contained viral DNA, which banded at the expected d ...
Eukaryotic DNA is packaged into nucleosomes, made up of 146 bp of DNA wrapped around a core of histone proteins. We used photoexcited rhodium intercalators to explore DNA charge transport within these assemblies. Although histone proteins inhibit intercalation of the rhodium complex within the core particle, they do not prevent 5'-GG-3' oxidation, the signature of oxidative charge transport through DNA. Moreover, using rhodium intercalators tethered to the 5' terminus of the DNA, we found that g ...
Correct localization of the centromeric histone variant CenH3/CENP-A/Cse4 is an important part of faithful chromosome segregation. Mislocalization of CenH3 could affect chromosome segregation, DNA replication and transcription. CENP-A is often overexpressed and mislocalized in cancer genomes, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. One major regulator of Cse4 deposition is Psh1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls levels of Cse4 to prevent deposition into non-centromeric regions. We p ...
Asf1 is a conserved histone chaperone implicated in nucleosome assembly, transcriptional silencing, and the cellular response to DNA damage. We solved the NMR solution structure of the N-terminal functional domain of the human Asf1a isoform, and we identified by NMR chemical shift mapping a surface of Asf1a that binds the C-terminal helix of histone H3. This binding surface forms a highly conserved hydrophobic groove surrounded by charged residues. Mutations within this binding site decreased th ...
Silent chromatin domains in Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent examples of epigenetically heritable chromatin. The formation of these domains involves the recruitment of the SIR complex, composed of Sir2, Sir3, and Sir4, followed by iterative cycles of NAD-dependent histone deacetylation and spreading of SIR complexes over adjacent chromatin domains. We show here that the conserved bromo-adjacent homology (BAH) domain of Sir3 is a nucleosome- and histone-tail-binding domain and that its binding ...
The basis for the choice of translational position of a histone octamer on DNA is poorly understood. To gain further insights into this question we have studied the translational and rotational settings of core particles assembled on a simple repeating 20 bp positioning sequence. We show that the translational positions of the core particles assembled on this sequence are invariant with respect to the DNA sequence and occur at 20 bp intervals. Certain modifications of the original sequence reduc ...
The expression of the histone genes is regulated during the cell cycle to provide histones for nucleosome assembly during DNA replication. In budding yeast, histones H2A and H2B are expressed from divergent promoters at the HTA1-HTB1 and HTA2-HTB2 loci. Here, we show that the major activator of HTA1-HTB1 is Spt10, a sequence-specific DNA binding protein with a putative histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain. Spt10 binds to two pairs of upstream activation sequence (UAS) elements in the HTA1-HTB1 ...
It is now widely accepted that there is a need for the development of molecular markers of cancer that can be used for clinical prognostication and monitoring. Approximately a decade ago tumor-derived circulating nucleic acids in the plasma or serum (CNAPS) of cancer patients were introduced as a noninvasive tool for cancer detection. This review focuses on the various types of CNAPS of patients with solid neoplasias (genetic alterations in circulating DNA, microsatellites, methylated DNA, viral ...
Oligomers of chromatin subunits (oligonucleosomes) were prepared by a mild digestion of chromatin with staphylococcal nuclease followed by a purification of a high molecular weight material (hexanucleosomes and larger DNP particles) by gel chromatography. The main finding is that a mild removal of histone H1 from the oligonucleosome preparation by treatment with tRNA in the absence of any significant hydrodynamic shearing leads to the formation of free DNA molecules which constitute 5–6% of th ...
The ISWI proteins form the catalytic core of a subset of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling activities. Here, we studied the interaction of the ISWI protein with nucleosomal substrates. We found that the ability of nucleic acids to bind and stimulate the ATPase activity of ISWI depends on length. We also found that ISWI is able to displace triplex-forming oligonucleotides efficiently when they are introduced at sites close to a nucleosome but successively less efficiently 30 to 60 bp from its ed ...
ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes are implicated in many areas of chromosome biology. However, the physiological role of many of these enzymes is still unclear. In budding yeast, the Isw2 complex slides nucleosomes along DNA. By analyzing the native chromatin structure of Isw2 targets, we have found that nucleosomes adopt default, DNA-directed positions when ISW2 is deleted. We provide evidence that Isw2 targets contain DNA sequences that are inhibitory to nucleosome formation and tha ...
We assessed the ability of cryptophycin 52 (LY355703), a novel antimicrotubule, to induce growth arrest and apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines and investigated potential molecular mechanisms of death. LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and DU-145 (androgen-independent) cells accumulated in G(2)-M phase of the cell cycle and progressively acquired sub-G(0)-G(1) DNA content after 48 h of exposure to cryptophycin 52 (1-10 pM). Induction of apoptosis was confirmed by DNA ladder formation and detection ...
The globular domain of linker histones specifically recognizes and binds to the nucleosome core. However, the exact location of the binding site of the globular domain has not been definitively elucidated. To address this issue, a linker histone has been specifically modified at a site adjacent to the globular domain with a radical-based DNA cleavage reagent. The linker histone-Fe(II) EDTA conjugate was bound to reconstituted nucleosomes containing a Xenopus 5S RNA gene, and the resulting cleava ...
MOTIVATION With the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing technologies, the genome-wide profiling of nucleosome positioning has become increasingly affordable. Many future studies will investigate the dynamic behaviour of nucleosome positioning in cells that have different states or that are exposed to different conditions. However, a robust method to effectively identify the regions of differential nucleosome positioning (RDNPs) has not been previously available. RESULTS We describe ...
The centromere in eukaryotes is defined by the presence of a special histone H3 variant, CENH3. Centromeric chromatin consists of blocks of CENH3-containing nucleosomes interspersed with blocks of canonical H3-containing nucleosomes. However, it is not known how CENH3 is precisely deposited in the centromeres. It has been suggested that epigenetic modifications of the centromeric chromatin may play a role in centromere identity. The centromeres of Arabidopsis thaliana are composed of megabase-si ...
BACKGROUND Transcription initiation is controlled by cis-regulatory modules. Although these modules are usually made of clusters of short transcription factor binding sites, a small minority of such clusters in the genome have cis-regulatory activity. This paradox is currently unsolved. RESULTS To identify what discriminates active from inactive clusters, we focused our attention on short topologically unconstrained clusters of two ETS and two GATA binding sites, similar to the early neural en ...
H2A.Z is an essential histone variant that has been implicated to have multiple chromosomal functions. To understand how H2A.Z participates in such diverse activities, we sought to identify downstream effector proteins that are recruited to chromatin via H2A.Z. For this purpose, we developed a nucleosome purification method to isolate H2A.Z-containing nucleosomes from human cells and used mass spectrometry to identify the co-purified nuclear proteins. Through stringent filtering, we identified t ...
The interaction of the high mobility group proteins, HMG14 and HMG17, with nucleosome core particles has been studied. The results show that two molecules of HMG14/17 can be bound tightly but reversibly to each core particle and that their affinity for core particles is greater than their affinity for histone-free DNA of core size. Thermal denaturation and nuclease digestion studies suggest that major sites of interaction are located near the ends of the nucleosome core DNA. When nucleosome prep ...
Two recent studies mapped nucleosomes across the yeast and human genomes, teasing apart the relative contributions of DNA sequence and chromatin remodelers to nucleosome organization. These data suggest two emerging models: chromatin remodelers position nucleosomes around transcriptional start sites in yeast, and a few "locked" nucleosomes may serve as barriers from which nucleosome arrays emanate in human genomes. ...
Promoter CpG island hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is an epigenetic hallmark of human cancer commonly associated with nucleosome occupancy and the transcriptional silencing of the neighboring gene. Nucleosomes can determine the underlying DNA methylation status. Herein, we show that the opposite is also true: DNA methylation can determine nucleosome positioning. Using a cancer model and digital nucleosome positioning techniques, we demonstrate that the induction of DNA hypomethylatio ...
Histone H2A variants generate diversity in chromatin structure and functions, as nucleosomes containing variant H2A histones have altered physical, chemical, and biological properties. H2A.Z is an evolutionarily ancient and highly conserved H2A variant that regulates processes ranging from gene expression to the DNA damage response. Here we find that the unstructured portion of the C-terminal tail of H2A.Z is required for the normal functions of this histone variant in budding yeast. We have als ...
In maize (Zea mays), as well as in other crops, transposable elements (TEs) constitute a great proportion of the genome. Chromatin modifications play a vital role in establishing transposon silencing and perpetuating the acquired repressive state. Nucleosomes associated with TEs are enriched for dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 and 27 (H3K9me2 and H3K27me2, respectively), signals of repressive chromatin. Here, we describe a chromatin protein, ZmMBD101, involved in the regulation of Mutato ...
Heavy metals have the potential to engage in strong bonding interactions and can thus function in essential as well as toxic or therapeutic capacities. We conducted crystallographic analyses of heavy cation binding to the nucleosome core particle and found that Co(2+) and Ni(2+) preferentially associate with the DNA major groove, in a sequence- and conformation-dependent manner. Conversely, Rb(+) and Cs(+) are found to bind only opportunistically to minor groove elements of the DNA, in particula ...
Reactive oxygen species generate potentially cytotoxic and mutagenic lesions in DNA, both between and within the nucleosomes that package DNA in chromatin. The vast majority of these lesions are subject to base excision repair (BER). Enzymes that catalyze the first three steps in BER can act at many sites in nucleosomes without the aid of chromatin-remodeling agents and without irreversibly disrupting the host nucleosome. Here we show that the same is true for a protein complex comprising DNA li ...
Nucleotide sequences carry genetic information of many different kinds, not just instructions for protein synthesis (triplet code). Several codes of nucleotide sequences are discussed including: (1) the translation framing code, responsible for correct triplet counting by the ribosome during protein synthesis; (2) the chromatin code, which provides instructions on appropriate placement of nucleosomes along the DNA molecules and their spatial arrangement; (3) a putative loop code for single-stran ...
We determined the 2.45 A crystal structure of the nucleosome core particle from Drosophila melanogaster and compared it to that of Xenopus laevis bound to the identical 147 base-pair DNA fragment derived from human alpha-satellite DNA. Differences between the two structures primarily reflect 16 amino acid substitutions between species, 15 of which are in histones H2A and H2B. Four of these involve histone tail residues, resulting in subtly altered protein-DNA interactions that exemplify the stru ...
H1 linker histones are involved in packaging chromatin into 30-nm fibers and higher order structures. Most eukaryotic cells contain nearly one H1 molecule for each nucleosome core particle. Male germ cells in mammals contain large amounts of a germ cell-specific linker histone, HIST1HT, herein denoted H1t, which is particularly abundant in pachytene spermatocytes. Despite its abundance in male germ cells and significant divergence in primary sequence from other H1 subtypes, inactivation of the H ...
Chromatin participates actively in all DNA transactions and all phenomena directly under the influence of chromatin are explained by epigenetic mechanisms. The genes transcribed by RNA polymerase (pol) III are generally found in regions free of nucleosomes, the structural units of chromatin. Yet, histone modifications and positions of nucleosomes in the gene flanking regions have been reported to show direct correlation with activity status of these genes. Gene-specific as well as genome-wide st ...
Binding of the glucocorticoid receptor complex to nucleosomes has been studied using the mouse P1798 lymphosarcoma. Cells were incubated with [3H]triamcinolone acetonide (TA), and nuclei prepared and digested with 3 different concentrations of micrococcal nuclease. After fractionation with EDTA and NaCl, it was observed that [3H]TA bound with similar specific radioactivity to mononucleosomes containing both core and linker DNA, of 183 +/- 5, and 168 +/- 4 base pair lengths, respectively, as well ...
Deoxyspergualin (DSG) has been found to have an antitumour and immunosuppressive activity. However, the precise mechanism of action of DSG has not been clarified. We have used its analogue, methyldeoxyspergualin (MeDSG) for in vitro culture studies of DSG since it shows good stability in aqueous solution and retains strong immunosuppressive activity. In the present study, we found that MeDSG inhibited proliferation of rapidly dividing murine T-cell hybridomas, resulting in cell death. The cell d ...
Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) regulation of transcription through the cell transcription factor RBPJ is essential for resting B-lymphocyte (RBL) conversion to immortal lymphoblast cell lines (LCLs). ChIP-seq of EBNA2 and RBPJ sites in LCL DNA found EBNA2 at 5,151 and RBPJ at 10,529 sites. EBNA2 sites were enriched for RBPJ (78%), early B-cell factor (EBF, 39%), RUNX (43%), ETS (39%), NFκB (22%), and PU.1 (22%) motifs. These motif associations were confirmed by LCL RBPJ ChIP-seq f ...
The broad-ranging topic of this Minisymposium attracted four presentations describing in vivo and in vitro experimental work and two presentations that primarily addressed theoretical aspects of chro-matin behavior over long and short length scales. Overall, the focus was very much on chromosomes, with presentations addressing chromosome ends (telomeres), centromeres, chromosome segregation , heterochromatin, and specific gene regions. In two complementary papers from the Andrew Spakowitz labora ...